all about the meadowfoam oil

One of the best oils I’ve used: for the usual multiple purposes. Mostly moisturising: face, body, hair. Also removing eye make-up, shaving armpits, etc. So why is it used so little? And when I say “little,” the main commercially-available cream that’s based on it, and one of the places where people will be most used to seeing the ingredients, is this complete and utter farce:

Farce-face, c/o Sephora: $260 for 100 g

INGREDIENTS: Limnanthes Alba (Meadowfoam) Seed Oil, Rosa Damascena Flower Water, Beeswax (Cera Alba), Pentylene Glycol, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Ormenis Multicaulis Flower Wax, Sodium Carbonate Decahydrate, Limonene, Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Peel Oil, Osmanthus Fragrans Flower Extract, Anthemis Nobilis Flower Oil, Tocopherol, Citronellol, Geraniol, Citral.

QUIBBLES:

  • lemon oil on face = facepalm
  • meadowfoam oil is native to the Pacific northwest (USA & Canada), only discovered and exploitation started recently
    + “This exclusive complex is inspired by the world’s first cream, created by Claude [sic] Galen, esteemed doctor to Emperor Marcus Aurelius, in the 2nd century A.D. to heal gladiator’s [sic] wounds. To preserve its rich history and supreme quality, each jar is hand-blended and hand-filled in a European monastery.”
    = incompatibility a.k.a. BS with amazeballs gigantic cojones.
  • I’m all in favour of keeping monks gainfully employed as constructive productive members of society. So long as they and their goodness of heart and vows of poverty (varying/depending of course on the order concerned) are not being abused by a big company. But how compatible is a sincere religous vocation with serving the pseudo-needs of foolish vain rich women?
  • A worse interpretation: Is this the modern continuation, writ in another medium, of another “rich history”: the long and venerable tradition of misogynist literature (and outright venomous rants) penned by monks?
  • Also: you cannot seriously charge that amount of money for what is at the end of the day a face cream, and not employ a proof-reader (or a literate copy-editor in the first place?), and expect not to be publicly ridiculed.

A DIY version, from MUA’s duchessofgrapes:

  • 2 1/2 tbsp Meadowfoam Seed Oil
  • 1 1/2 tbsp Beeswax
  • 1 tbsp Hazel Seed Oil
  • 2 tsp Emulsifying Wax
  • 1/2 tsp Washing Soda
  • 2 tbsp Rosewater
  • 1/4 tsp Vitamin E Oil
  • 10 drops Lemon Essential Oil
  • 10 drops Sweet Olive Essential Oil
  • 10 drops Chamomile Essential Oil

Melt (oils and beeswax) and (wax, soda, and rosewater) in separate double boilers. When liquefied, remove from heat and bring mixes to the same temperature. Slowly add the wax to the oils, whisking vigorously. Add vitamin E and essential oil and store in an opaque jar. To use, take a pea size amount and rub it on your fingertips. Then gently press it into the skin.

Basically, one could do that, omit the essential oils (or replace them with something OK on me like rose), and lo! marvellous cream. One day I’ll do this…

The same company also do meadowfoam hair stuff, and the oil is in their mascaras (or at least, it was the last time I bought Fresh Supernova; admittedly quite some time ago now, overpriced ripoff that it is). You’ll see it not infrequently in lipsticks too, from various brands. The British brand Faith in Nature use it in a fair amount of their stuff; of which the only ones I’d used were the excellent Hemp & Meadowfoam shampoo and conditioner.

The oil’s not new. It’s amazing stuff. So why is it taking so long to catch on?

The history of production may offer some hints. Combined perchance with changes in government, and in national policy on sustainable oil-producing crops vs. crude oil production? Actually, that was one of the things that got me on to it: the fact that the crop was developed as a substitute not only for cosmetic mineral oil, but also for the hydrocarbon fuel and industrial lubricant.

The other thing being a MUA Green Board question about plant-based sustainable substitutes for petrolatum (a.k.a. Vaseline, owned by Unilever, who are evil bunny-torturers) and the like.

Which led to this post:

Looks like there was nearly a revival back in 2007, if this item from Cosmetics & Toiletries: Science Applied is anything to go by:

Find Stability with Meadowfoam Oil

Posted: May 22, 2007

Meadowfoam oil has raised its profile as a key ingredient in personal care products, primarily due to its oxidative stability. It is made from the seeds of the Limnanthes alba plant and is an odorless triglyceride composed of fatty acids consisting of more carbon atoms that give it a more lightweight feel. Meadowfoam oil is emerging as a popular ingredient because of its moisturizing and rejuvenating characteristics, as well as its ability to extend a product’s shelf life. The ingredient is less likely to go rancid, even in extreme conditions and exposure to heat and oxygen, and can reportedly extend the shelf life of other less-stable ingredients, helping products retain their scent longer, according to Mintel.

The meadowfoam plant resembles sea foam blowing on the surf, which is how it received its name, and it is native to Northern California, Southern Oregon,and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The Web site www.FromNaturewithLove.com, which sells natural and complementary ingredients used in beauty products, cites additional benefits of meadowfoam oil, including adding shine and moisture to hair and scalp.

Mintel Cosmetic Research reveals that a booming number of new products featuring meadowfoam oil have been introduced in the United States. Aveda Lip Tint SPF 15 is infused with plant lipids that help condition and replenish. The lip tint is formulated with meadowfoam oil and is composed of 100% pure flower and plant essence. The product claims to use natural sunscreens, including mineral-derived titanium dioxide and oil of wintergreen. It also contains avocado, mango, certified organic babassu, jojoba and olive oils. Astaxanthin provides antioxidant protection, while the “refreshing flavor” comes from a blend of certified organic orange and spearmint with pomegranate.

Meadowfoam oil can be found in Vedababy Baby Butt cream, which is part of an all-natural range of baby products developed by Natalie Geary, PhD. This product is intended to soothe diaper rash. Grapeseed and meadowfoam oil are implemented for their cooling abilities, while calendula and organic rosehip oil were used reportedly for their restorative and calming abilities. This product actually contains several oils including grapeseed, meadowfoam, organic jojoba, shea and organic rosehip. Meadowfoam oil is often used in conjunction with other less stable oil to extend the product’s shelf life.

Scruples White Tea Restorative Conditioner is formulated with white tea leaf extract, orange flower extract, panthenol and orange oil, along with meadowfoam oil. Its “superior formula” was designed to condition, detangle and help protect, heal, restore and improve the integrity of the hair.

I’m not entirely convinced that it’ll help with mental health conditions, and there’s always a danger that such snappy snazzy headlines will catch the unstable like deer in headlights. But hey.

Here follows lots and lots and lots of stuff about meadowfoam seed oil. Entirely copy-pasted by hand. Much reduplication running around, but from one version to another, you’ll get the general gist. Plus some pretty pictures, mostly of meadowfoam-based products, for light relief.

meadowfoam seed oil c/o Google image search

From Natural Plant Products, Inc. (Oregon Meadowfoam Seed Oil):

ORIGIN:

Meadowfoam Seed Oil is derived from the seeds of commercial meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) fields in Oregon’s Willamette Valley. It is extracted and refined to Natural Plant Products’ exacting specifications which have been developed over 25 years of production experience.

DESCRIPTION:

Meadowfoam Seed Oil is the fully refined triglyceride composed of over 98% fatty acids with chain lengths of 20 carbons or more. The oil is a light-colored, odor free product prized for its exceptional oxidative stability and functionality in a wide range of cosmetic and personal care formulations.

UTILITY:

Meadowfoam Seed Oil’s skin feel is distinct from many other natural oils. This is due to the novel chemistry of its fatty acids, which contain more carbon atoms than fatty acids common in edible oils such as soy, almond, sunflower and olive. As a result, Meadowfoam Seed Oil provides good emolliency without being overly greasy or unctuous. Meadowfoam Seed Oil is one of the most stable lipids known with naturally occurring tocopherols and the absence of oxidatively susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids common in other oils. The high level of oxidative stability means Meadowfoam Seed Oil is less likely to go rancid, even when handled at high temperatures and in the presence of oxygen and other conditions that cause natural oils to degrade. Results from stability testing with Meadowfoam Seed Oil as well as blends with other oils confirm Meadowfoam Seed Oil’s superior stability, but also how it can increase the stability of other oils. Concerns about product shelf-life are alleviated by Meadowfoam’s extraordinary resistance to oxidation.

gratuitous image of a moisturiser containing meadowfoam seed oil (warnings on high dose of aloe vera plus scent)

From Soapcrafter.ca:

Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba Benth.) is a low growing herbaceous winter annual. The common name “Meadowfoam” is due to it’s appearance at full bloom.  A field of white flowers blowing in the wind resembles sea foam on the ocean surf.  Meadowfoam is native to northern California, southern Oregon, and Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

Meadowfoam is becoming widely used in cosmetic and hair-care applications.  Its desirability is due to its long chain of fatty acids and its stability as an oil.  Meadowfoam oil is highly resistant to oxidation and heat. It has been found to also extend the shelf like of other oils with which it is combined in a product.  It’s lubricity and ability to stay on the skin make it wonderful for massage oils and lotions.   It is also used in salon-quality hair-care products.  The beneficial properties of the oil in these applications include moisturizing, ultra-violet protection (sun-screen applications), a non-greasy feel, and excellent properties for blending with other cosmetic oils to enhance their function and reduce the cost of their use.

“Additionally, the oil is one of the most shelf-stable lipids known and remains liquid at room temperature despite its molecular weight. These characteristics make meadowfoam oil very stable, even when heated or exposed to the air. This outstanding stability can be conferred to other oils when meadowfoam oil is blended with them, making it ideal as a carrier in applications with less stable, but very high-value oils, e.g., almond, borage, and evening primrose oil. For this reason meadowfoam oil is a potentially very high-value shelf-life extender for the cosmetics industry. The oil’s long-chain fatty acids (20- and 22-carbon), unique due to very high levels of mono-unsaturation and very low levels of poly-unsaturation, although immediately recognized for cosmetic and other personal care applications.”

The oil extracted from meadowfoam seeds is recognized for its outstanding oxidative stability and contains over 98 percent long-chain fatty acids. It has higher quality triglyceride levels compared to other vegetable oils. Meadowfoam oil contains three previously unknown long chain fatty acids.”

gratuitous nudity, in the form of hair stuff containing–you guessed it–meadowfoam seed oil

From Mountain Rose Herbs:

Botanical Name- Limnanthes alba
Origin- USA
Extraction- Expeller Pressed/Refined
Shelf life- 2 years recommended
Kosher Certified- No
Notes- A stable refined oil that appreciates refrigeration, however this is not necessary. Its high oxidative stability makes it practical and convenient for several cosmetic creations.

Specifications
Color- Light golden
Odor- None
Free Fatty Acids- 0.03%
Peroxide Value- 0.0
Non-Saponifiables- 0.4
Saponification Value- 168
Iodine Value- 90.83
Specific Gravity- 0.91
pH- 4.11
Heavy Metals- <1.1ppm

Fatty Acids
Brassic- 17.9%
Erucic- 12.7%
Gadoleic- 61.5%
Oleic- 3.2%

An Introduction
Meadowfoam Oil is pressed from the seeds of Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba), a plant which received its name because of its resemblance while in bloom to the white foam blowing on the ocean. Meadowfoam is native to northern California, southern Oregon, Vancouver Island, and British Columbia. It has proven to be invaluable in the body care and cosmetic industries, and is also being studied for pharmaceutical and industrial use.

Meadowfoam oil contains over 98% long-chain fatty acids, and also has higher quality triglyceride levels when compared to other vegetable oils. In addition, it has three long chain fatty acids that were previously unknown before its discovery. It also has amazing moisturizing and rejuvenating capabilities, is very stable, and may be utilized for many different purposes.

Cosmetic Use
We highly recommend incorporating Meadowfoam oil in your natural body care recipes because of its outstanding qualities. It is widely used in cosmetic and hair care products because it is moisturizing, extremely stable, and capable of adhering and staying on the skin. In addition, Meadowfoam oil is one of the most stable oils, and will actually extend the shelf life of less stable ingredients. When applied to the skin, it forms a moisture barrier and will assist the skin with preventing moisture loss. It is a key ingredient in many different products such as massage oils and lotions, facial creams, sunblock, hair and scalp products, cosmetics, body lotions, and shaving creams. In hair care products, it will add shine and moisture to the hair, and will remedy dry or damaged hair. When added to lotions and lip balms, it will remoisturize dry or cracked lips and skin, and will make balms last longer. In summary, Meadowfoam oil has these beneficial characteristics:

  • Moisturizes the skin
  • Rejuvenates and adds shine to hair
  • Ultra-violet protection (sunscreen applications)
  • Non-greasy feeling, soaks into the skin easily
  • Reduces wrinkles and signs of aging
  • Blends well with other carrier oils
  • Very stable, even under heat and air exposure
  • Adheres well to the skin
  • Binder, helps products retain their scent longer
  • Stability extends product shelf life when combined with less stable ingredients

Additional Benefits
Aside from these amazing cosmetic uses, Meadowfoam oil is also beneficial for our environment! It was first developed in the 1970’s, and was introduced as an alternative to sperm whale oil in order to protect the species. The pressed seeds are fed to cattle and other livestock, and are a source of nutrients for these animals. While grown in the field, birds, insects, mice, and other critters, also eat the nutritious seeds. The Meadowfoam plants themselves are a renewable crop, and are usually grown as a rotation crop for grass seed farmers. This eliminates the need to burn the fields in between grass seed plantings, and also provides farmers with additional income. Meadowfoam also requires less fertilizer and pesticides than most crops, assisting farmers and the environment. Scientists at Oregon State University and the US Department of Agriculture, as well as other scientists, are all currently studying Meadowfoam oil, in order to discover new applications for this versatile oil.

Precautions:  None found, however its use is stated as cosmetic use only.

another bit of meadowfoamyness: I’d buy it myself in a minute, if it weren’t for the lots of aloe, the palmarose essential oil, and the TEA. Not on that label but in the product description’s ingredient list: Aloe Vera Gel, Sodium Hyaluronate (HA), Meadowfoam Oil, Shea Butter, Mango Butter, Olive Oil, Almond Oil, Avocado Oil, Sunflower Seed Oil, Grapeseed Oil, Capric/Caprilic Triglycerides, Vegetable Glycerin, Stearic Acid, Glyceryl Stearate, Cetyl Alcohol, Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe) Leaf Juice, Tocopherol (Vitamin E), Cyclopentasiloxane, Triethanolamine, Phenoxyethanol, Caprylyl Glycol & Palmarosa Essential Oil.

From Aromantic.co.uk:

Meadowfoam oil is widely used in cosmetic and hair-care applications due to its stability, lubricity and ability to stay on the skin.

What is it?

Meadowfoam seed oil has been extracted from the seeds of the (meadowfoam) plant and is an edible oil. The plant derives the name meadowfoam as when it is in bloom it resembles the white foam that rides the ocean waves. It is native to northern California, southern Oregon, Vancouver Island and British Columbia.

Skin Care

The seeds contain 20-30% oil. Meadowfoam seed oil is surprisingly stable, mainly because it contains over 98% long chain fatty acids. Meadowfoam oil is most similar to rapeseed oil, with which it competes directly for the high-volume industrial oilseed applications. Meadowfoam oil is widely used in cosmetic and hair-care applications due to its stability, lubricity and ability to stay on the skin.

It is a key ingredient in many different products such as massage oils and lotions, facial creams, sun block creams, hair and scalp products, cosmetics, body lotions, and shaving creams.

Natural Vitamin Content
It is said to contain the antioxidant tocopherols (vitamin E oil) and also the antioxidants phytosterols, but no known quantities have been revealed.

Additional Benefits

As well as meadowfoam oil’s uses within the cosmetic industry, it is also beneficial for our environment! First developed in the 1970’s, and it was introduced as an alternative to sperm whale oil in order to protect them.

The pressed seeds are fed to cattle and other livestock, and are a good source of nutrients for these animals. Birds, insects, mice, and other small creatures, also eat the nutritious seeds from the plant while growing in the fields. The meadowfoam plants themselves are a renewable crop, and are usually grown as a rotation crop for grass seed farmers. This means there is no need to burn the fields in between plantings, and also provides farmers with additional income.

Meadowfoam also requires less fertiliser and pesticides than most crops, which not only benefits the farmers but the environment too. Scientists at Oregon State University and the US Department of Agriculture, as well as other scientists, are all currently studying meadowfoam oil, in order to discover new applications for this versatile oil.

Shelf Life

2-3 years. It also helps to extend the shelf life of other oils and raw materials. Because of this you can use it to prolong the shelf life of vegetable oils that are high in Omega 3.

Uses of Meadowfoam Oil

  • Saponification value: 168.
  • Meadowfoam oil has some unique properties. It has between 15-23% brassic acid and it has between 60-65% gadoleic acid (ecosenoic acid). Because of the similar quantity of gadoleic acid as jojoba oil (66-88%) it has the same qualities as jojoba oil and is non greasy like jojoba too.
  • Meadowfoam oil is an extremely stable oil that works both as an emollient and occlusive moisturiser. It also helps to prevent trans epidermal water loss.
  • Meadowfoam oil is very good for whole body massage. It has a half dry, smooth and non-sticky feeling on the skin. It offers very good lubrication and is absorbed by the skin slowly, which means it is excellent massage oil. It is a long oil. One drop goes a long way so it is very good for long strokes in whole body massage.
  • For whole body massage, it provides enough friction reduction (glide) without sacrificing control, although you can add sweet almond, liquid fractionated coconut oil or grape seed oil to give your blend extra spreadability.
  • Excellent to use as a face massage oil because of its ‘non-stickiness’.
  • It softens, protects and helps the skin to hold its moisture.
  • In hair oils and packs for different types of hair and problems, such as dandruff and seborrhoea; dry and damaged hair; to add shine and volume. 100% meadowfoam oil can be rubbed into hair tips.
  • Use in hair cream treatments for hair loss and for structurally damaged or brittle hair.
  • In body lotions. Meadowfoam oil works well in body lotions because it is a classic long oil and therefore spreads easily over a larger skin surface when applying it to the whole body.
  • Meadowfoam oil is very good to use on cracked lips and skin as it helps to re-moisturise them.
  • Several well-known acne-curing brands, such as Neutrogena, use meadowfoam oil in their products to keep the skin from drying out and to prevent the face from scarring.
  • While meadowfoam oil may be good for aging skin, it may cause breakouts for people with oily skin because the chain of fatty acids that is in it forms a barrier to prevent the skin from losing moisture. This may make the skin even more oily and cause the skin to worsen.
  • All skin types are different and we all react differently to various products. However, meadowfoam oil is an ingredient in many popular skin care products and it should be safe to use. Meadowfoam oil is rarely the sole cause of breakouts.
  • A silicon derivative has been developed from meadowfoam by companies to penetrate and repair human hair, so the oil could be combined with Aromantic’s natural silicon, phytokeratin and sea silk.

and some more: this time for small persons (mainly), featuring cows, and with gorgeous packaging courtesy of a very fine graphic designer

From Agricultural Marketing Resource Center: “a national information resource for value-added agriculture”

Overview
Meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba) is a low-growing herbaceous winter annual that is adapted to poorly drained soils. The common name “meadowfoam” is due to the appearance, at full bloom, of the plant’s solid canopy of creamy white flowers that resembles, in the wind, sea foam on the surf. Meadowfoam grows to a height of 10 to 18 inches.

Meadowfoam is a native wildflower found along waterways in northern California, southern Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia.  It is mainly grown in Oregon. Research and development of meadowfoam began in the late 1950s as the result of a USDA search for plants that might provide a renewable source of raw materials for industry. Commercial development began in 1980 on an experimental farm in Oregon. Approximately 2,000 acres of meadowfoam were sown in Oregon’s Willamette Valley in 2004. By 2006, the acreage had increased to 5,000 acres for seed production. In 2010, more than 4,000 acres were contracted for meadowfoam production. The seed yields have varied between 1,000 to 1,300 pounds per acre. Oregon meadowfoam growers annually sell oil worth $2 million in the world market.

Value-added Products
Meadowfoam seeds (nutlets) contain 20 to 30 percent oil. The oil from meadowfoam seed has unique chemical properties that make it one of the most stable vegetable oils known. The oil extracted from meadowfoam seeds is recognized for its outstanding oxidative stability and contains over 98 percent long-chain fatty acids. It has higher quality triglyceride levels compared to other vegetable oils. Meadowfoam oil contains three previously unknown long-chain fatty acids. The oil is most similar to high euric acid rapeseed oil. Rapeseed oil is slightly more saturated than meadowfoam oil. In addition, meadowfoam oil is 20 times more stable than soybean oil, which means it does not deteriorate as readily when exposed to air (ARS 1997).

After the oil is removed by crushing the seed and utilizing a solvent extraction process, the remaining meal may be used as a feed source. Meadowfoam meal fed to beef cattle at levels up to 25 percent of the total dietary intake has no negative impact on weight gain. Use of the meal for other livestock may require steam cooking or using a lower percentage of meal in the total feed supply due to a toxic glucosinolate fraction.

Meadowfoam oil is in direct competition with rapeseed oil for high-volume industrial oilseed markets. Penetration into these markets requires that meadowfoam oil be price competitive and in dependable supply. The price of meadowfoam oil was as high as $7.00 per pound in 2002 but is targeted to significantly decline as efficiency of large-scale production and added value from higher yielding varieties increases. However, at this time, market channels have yet to become well established.

Product development that takes advantage of the unique long-chain fatty acids found in meadowfoam oil would tend to lead to a high-value, low-volume market that would accelerate the development of full-scale production and market systems. Meadowfoam oil is widely used in cosmetic and hair-care applications due to its stability, lubricity and ability to stay on the skin. Some examples of existing specialty applications include massage lotions, sun block creams and salon-quality hair-care products. Meadowfoam oil is highly resistant to oxidation and heat, and is a valuable material for personal-care products. The beneficial properties of the oil in these applications include moisturizing, ultraviolet protection (sunscreen applications), a non-greasy feel and excellent properties for blending with other cosmetic oils to enhance their function and reduce the cost of their use. Additionally, the oil is one of the most shelf-stable lipids known and remains liquid at room temperature despite its molecular weight. These characteristics make meadowfoam oil very stable, even when heated or exposed to the air. This outstanding stability can be conferred to other oils when meadowfoam oil is blended with them, making it ideal as a carrier in applications with less stable, but very high-value oils, for example, almond, borage, and evening primrose oil. For this reason, meadowfoam oil is a potentially very high value shelf-life extender for the cosmetics industry.

The oil’s long-chain fatty acids (20- and 22-carbon), unique due to very high levels of mono-unsaturation and very low levels of poly-unsaturation, although immediately recognized for cosmetic and other personal care applications, also makes them uniquely applicable to industrial products that include specialty lubricants, inks, detergents and plasticizers. Meadowfoam oil can be chemically transformed into a liquid wax ester that is an ideal substitute for sperm whale and jojoba oils. Additionally, the oil can be easily converted to a light-colored, premium-grade solid wax, as well as a sulfur-polymer factice potentially valuable to the rubber industry. Derivatives of meadowfoam oil such as estoloides and silicone esters have considerable potential as coatings, films and adhesives.

The various industrial applications for meadowfoam oil are currently being researched by USDA-ARS at the New Crops Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, with additional oil extraction and glucosinolate-removal research being conducted by the Center for Crops Utilization Research at Iowa State University, Ames. Due to the potential for high-value industrial applications, biotechnological research also is underway to transfer expression of meadowfoam oil to soybeans, an established agronomic system. To date, the oil has been expressed in soybean embryos.

Other Links

Some more:

Some places to buy it; all ship here to Canada, YMMV as ever on shipping to wherever you happen to be if you’re elsewhere:

The nearest they do to unscented… ah, if only… INGREDIENTS: Certified organic dandelion and certified organic red clover infusion in water, shea butter derived from certified organic nuts, meadowfoam seed oil, certified organic aloe vera extract, emulsifying wax, vegetable glycerin, certified organic jojoba oil, certified organic sunflower oil, certified organic extracts of carrot, hibiscus flower, echinacea, elder flower, angelica, sweet almond, avocado, sea kelp, ginseng, aloe vera gel, basil, coltsfoot and calendula, certified organic extracts of rosemary, marshmallow and chamomile, essential oils, hydrolyzed jojoba esters, potassium sorbate, passionflower oil, mango butter, certified organic oat bran extract, tocopherol (vitamin e), xanthan gum and carbomer.

4 comments

  1. Survival Seeds

    I just couldnt leave your website before saying that I really enjoyed the quality information you offer to your visitors Will be back often to check up on new posts

  2. Pingback: Daffodil – Large Cupped – Mystify | Landscaping - Gardening
  3. A. Robbins

    Thank you very much for doing the research and compiling all this information for your readers.

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